Bipolar Transistors

Bipolar Transistors are a solid state, three-pin devices made from three layers of silicon. A bipolar transistor is designed to amplify current, bipolar transistors can also function as a switch. There are two main types of transistor, PNP (positive negative positive) or NPN (negative positive-negative).

How a Bipolar transistor is made

Bipolar transistors are constructed by joining two signal diodes back to back creating two PN junctions connected in series, sharing a common P or N terminal. By nature, silicon does not normally conduct electricity well. However, when silicon is treated with certain chemicals or impurities we can make the material and electrons behave in a different way. This process is called doping. The doping process improves the semiconductors ability to conduct electricity.

How do bipolar transistors work?

Bipolar transistors have two possible functions, switching, and amplification. Due to the devices three layers of doped semiconductor material, supplying the transistor with a signal voltage enables the discrete component to act as an insulator or a conductor. This clever change provides the transistors with two basic functions, switching (digital) electronics or amplification (analog) electronics.

Transistors are available in panel, surface and through-hole mounting options in plastic package or metal can versions. All have three terminals or pins, the Base, the Collector, and the Emitter.

They are also available as;

  • Digital transistors - are made of a semiconductor material, usually silicon, which conducts the current (or electricity) with little resistance. They also tend to have at least three terminals for easy connection to an external circuit.
  • UJT transistors - constructed of a bar of lightly dope N type silicone with a small piece of heavily doped P type material attached to one side. Since the silicon bar is lightly dope it has very high resistance.

Applications of bipolar transistors?

Transistors are one of the most widely used discrete components in electronic designs and circuits. Transistors are used for the amplification of all types of electrical signals in circuits made up of individual components rather than ICs (integrated circuits).


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Description Price Transistor Type Maximum DC Collector Current Maximum Collector Emitter Voltage Package Type Mounting Type Maximum Power Dissipation Transistor Configuration Maximum Collector Base Voltage Maximum Emitter Base Voltage Maximum Operating Frequency Pin Count Number of Elements per Chip Dimensions Minimum Operating Temperature
RS Stock No. 774-0749
Mfr. Part No.2SC5706-TL-H
$0.994
Each (In a Pack of 5)
units
NPN 5 A 50 V TP-FA Surface Mount 15 W Single 100 V 6 V 1 MHz 4 1 6.5 x 5.5 x 2.3mm -
RS Stock No. 168-5846
Mfr. Part No.BUL216
$2.111
Each (In a Tube of 50)
units
NPN 4 A 800 V TO-220 Through Hole 9 W Single 1600 V 9 V - 3 1 9.15 x 10.4 x 4.6mm -
RS Stock No. 178-481
Mfr. Part No.DTA144EUAT106
BrandROHM
$0.308
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
PNP - - UMT Surface Mount - Single - - - 3 1 2 x 1.25 x 0.8mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 166-1526
Mfr. Part No.BC849CW,115
BrandNexperia
$0.044
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
NPN 100 mA 30 V UMT Surface Mount 200 mW Single 30 V 5 V 100 MHz 3 1 1 x 2.2 x 1.35mm -
RS Stock No. 163-2502
Mfr. Part No.MJE15028G
$1.418
Each (In a Tube of 50)
units
NPN 8 A 120 V TO-220AB Through Hole 50 W Single 120 V 5 V 30 MHz 3 1 9.28 x 10.28 x 4.82mm -
RS Stock No. 436-7975
Mfr. Part No.BC849CW,115
BrandNexperia
$0.277
Each (In a Pack of 50)
units
NPN 100 mA 30 V UMT Surface Mount 200 mW Single 30 V 5 V 100 MHz 3 1 1 x 2.2 x 1.35mm -65 °C
RS Stock No. 168-6044
Mfr. Part No.BD911
$1.565
Each (In a Tube of 50)
units
NPN 15 A 100 V TO-220 Through Hole 90 W Single 100 V 5 V 3 MHz 3 1 9.15 x 10.4 x 4.6mm -
RS Stock No. 686-8076
Mfr. Part No.BD139-10
$0.565
Each (In a Pack of 20)
units
NPN 3 A 80 V SOT-32 Through Hole 1.25 W Single 80 V 5 V - 3 1 10.8 x 7.8 x 2.7mm -65 °C
RS Stock No. 738-4914
Mfr. Part No.BCW66HTA
$0.377
Each (In a Pack of 50)
units
NPN 800 mA 45 V SOT-23 Surface Mount 330 mW Single 75 V 5 V - 3 1 3 x 1.4 x 1.1mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 774-3404
Mfr. Part No.2N4124G
$0.119
Each (In a Pack of 50)
units
NPN 200 mA 25 V TO-92 Through Hole 1.5 W Single 30 V 5 V 100 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 145-5439
Mfr. Part No.FJA4310OTU
$3.497
Each (In a Tube of 30)
units
NPN 10 A 140 V TO-3P Through Hole 100 W Single 200 V 6 V 30 MHz 3 1 15.8 x 5 x 20.1mm -
RS Stock No. 781-4235
Mfr. Part No.MMBT4401LT3G
$0.058
Each (In a Pack of 200)
units
NPN 600 mA 40 V SOT-23 Surface Mount 225 mW Single 60 V dc 6 V 100 MHz 3 1 3.04 x 2.64 x 1.11mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 485-9115
Mfr. Part No.D44H11
$1.584
Each (In a Pack of 5)
units
NPN 20 A 80 V TO-220 Through Hole 50 W Single 80 V 5 V - 3 1 9.15 x 10.4 x 4.6mm -65 °C
RS Stock No. 890-2645
Mfr. Part No.2SC3324-BL(TE85L,F
BrandToshiba
$0.462
Each (In a Pack of 25)
units
NPN 100 mA 120 V SOT-346 (SC-59) Surface Mount 150 mW Single 120 V 120 V - 3 1 2.9 x 1.5 x 1.1mm -
RS Stock No. 178-1408
Mfr. Part No.BD438
$0.905
Each (In a Tube of 50)
units
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
RS Stock No. 295-517
Mfr. Part No.ZTX653
$1.536
Each (In a Pack of 5)
units
NPN 2 A 100 V E-Line Through Hole 1 W Single 120 V 5 V 175 MHz 3 1 4.01 x 4.77 x 2.41mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 145-4563
Mfr. Part No.BD14016STU
$0.778
Each (In a Tube of 60)
units
PNP 1.5 A 80 V TO-126 Through Hole 12.5 W Single -80 V -5 V - 3 1 8 x 3.25 x 11mm -
RS Stock No. 510-011
Mfr. Part No.BCW71,215
BrandNexperia
$0.125
Each (In a Pack of 100)
units
NPN 100 mA 45 V SOT-23 (TO-236AB) Surface Mount 250 mW Single 50 V 5 V 100 MHz 3 1 1 x 3 x 1.4mm -65 °C
RS Stock No. 145-5385
Mfr. Part No.KSA940TU
$0.929
Each (In a Tube of 50)
units
PNP 1.5 A 150 V TO-220 Through Hole 25 W Single -150 V -5 V 4 MHz 3 1 9.9 x 4.5 x 9.2mm -
RS Stock No. 544-9630
Mfr. Part No.MJ15023G
$12.83
Each
units
PNP 16 A 200 V TO-204 Through Hole 250 W Single 350 V 5 V 4 MHz 3 1 8.51 x 39.37 x 26.67mm -65 °C