Bipolar Transistors

Bipolar Transistors are a solid state, three-pin devices made from three layers of silicon. A bipolar transistor is designed to amplify current, bipolar transistors can also function as a switch. There are two main types of transistor, PNP (positive negative positive) or NPN (negative positive-negative).

How a Bipolar transistor is made

Bipolar transistors are constructed by joining two signal diodes back to back creating two PN junctions connected in series, sharing a common P or N terminal. By nature, silicon does not normally conduct electricity well. However, when silicon is treated with certain chemicals or impurities we can make the material and electrons behave in a different way. This process is called doping. The doping process improves the semiconductors ability to conduct electricity.

How do bipolar transistors work?

Bipolar transistors have two possible functions, switching, and amplification. Due to the devices three layers of doped semiconductor material, supplying the transistor with a signal voltage enables the discrete component to act as an insulator or a conductor. This clever change provides the transistors with two basic functions, switching (digital) electronics or amplification (analog) electronics.

Transistors are available in panel, surface and through-hole mounting options in plastic package or metal can versions. All have three terminals or pins, the Base, the Collector, and the Emitter.

They are also available as;

  • Digital transistors - are made of a semiconductor material, usually silicon, which conducts the current (or electricity) with little resistance. They also tend to have at least three terminals for easy connection to an external circuit.
  • UJT transistors - constructed of a bar of lightly dope N type silicone with a small piece of heavily doped P type material attached to one side. Since the silicon bar is lightly dope it has very high resistance.

Applications of bipolar transistors?

Transistors are one of the most widely used discrete components in electronic designs and circuits. Transistors are used for the amplification of all types of electrical signals in circuits made up of individual components rather than ICs (integrated circuits).


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Description Price Transistor Type Maximum DC Collector Current Maximum Collector Emitter Voltage Package Type Mounting Type Maximum Power Dissipation Transistor Configuration Maximum Collector Base Voltage Maximum Emitter Base Voltage Maximum Operating Frequency Pin Count Number of Elements per Chip Dimensions Minimum Operating Temperature
RS Stock No. 756-3909
Mfr. Part No.TTC5200(Q)
BrandToshiba
$4.33
Each
units
NPN 15 A 230 V TO-3PL Through Hole 150 W Single 230 V 5 V 30 MHz 3 1 20.5 x 5.2 x 26mm -
RS Stock No. 896-2656
Mfr. Part No.TTC5200(Q)
BrandToshiba
$4.415
Each (In a Pack of 2)
units
NPN 15 A 230 V 2-21F1A Through Hole 150 W Single 230 V 5 V 30 MHz 3 1 20.5 x 5.2 x 26mm -
RS Stock No. 843-1575
Mfr. Part No.2N3904BU
$0.227
Each (In a Pack of 50)
units
NPN 200 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 60 V 6 V 100 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 805-1043
Mfr. Part No.2N3904TAR
$0.106
Each (In a Pack of 200)
units
NPN 200 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 60 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 124-1317
Mfr. Part No.2N3904TA
$0.067
Each (On a Reel of 2000)
units
NPN 200 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 60 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 739-0442
Mfr. Part No.2N3904TA
$0.254
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
NPN 200 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 60 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 842-8015
Mfr. Part No.2N3904BU
$0.061
Each (In a Bag of 1000)
units
NPN 200 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 60 V 6 V 100 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 805-1056
Mfr. Part No.2N3904TFR
$0.187
Each (In a Pack of 200)
units
NPN 200 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 60 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 103-2964
Mfr. Part No.2N3055G
$7.312
Each (In a Tray of 100)
units
NPN 15 A 60 V TO-204AA Through Hole 115 W Single 100 V 7 V 2.5 MHz 2 1 8.51 x 39.37 x 26.67mm -
RS Stock No. 545-2210
Mfr. Part No.2N3055G
$12.04
Each
units
NPN 15 A 60 V TO-204 Through Hole 115 W Single 100 V 7 V 2.5 MHz 3 1 8.51 x 39.37 x 26.67mm -65 °C
RS Stock No. 124-1314
Mfr. Part No.2N3906BU
$0.065
Each (In a Bag of 1000)
units
PNP 200 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single -40 V -5 V - 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 739-0375
Mfr. Part No.2N3906BU
$0.324
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
PNP 200 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single -40 V -5 V - 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 169-8696
Mfr. Part No.2N3906TAR
$0.06
Each (On a Reel of 2000)
units
PNP 200 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single -40 V -5 V 250 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 805-1065
Mfr. Part No.2N3906TFR
$0.195
Each (In a Pack of 200)
units
PNP 200 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single -40 V -5 V 250 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 756-0269
Mfr. Part No.2SC5354-1(F)
BrandToshiba
$6.50
Each
units
NPN 5 A 800 V TO-3PN Through Hole 100 W Single 900 V 7 V - 3 1 15.9 x 4.8 x 20mm -
RS Stock No. 124-5390
Mfr. Part No.NJW0302G
$4.05
Each (In a Tube of 30)
units
PNP 15 A 250 V TO-3P Through Hole 150 W Single 250 V dc 5 V 1 MHz 3 1 15.8 x 5 x 20.1mm -
RS Stock No. 790-5454
Mfr. Part No.NJW0302G
$3.865
Each (In a Pack of 2)
units
PNP 15 A 250 V TO-3P Through Hole 150 W Single 250 V dc 5 V 1 MHz 3 1 15.8 x 5 x 20.1mm -65 °C
RS Stock No. 738-7571
Mfr. Part No.2N2222ACSM
BrandSemelab
$52.51
Each
units
NPN 800 mA 40 V LCC 1 Surface Mount 500 mW Single 75 V 6 V 250 MHz 3 1 3.05 x 2.54 x 1.4mm -65 °C
RS Stock No. 177-5495
Mfr. Part No.2N2222ACSM
BrandSemelab
$28.679
Each (In a Tray of 100)
units
NPN 800 mA 40 V LCC 1 Surface Mount 500 mW Single 75 V 6 V 250 MHz 3 1 3.05 x 2.54 x 1.4mm -
RS Stock No. 178-4767
Mfr. Part No.TIP30CG
$0.777
Each (In a Tube of 50)
units
PNP 1 A 100 V TO-220AB Through Hole 30 W Single 100 V 5 V 1 MHz 3 1 10.28 x 4.82 x 15.75mm -