IGBT (insulated-gate bipolar transistors) are semiconductors mainly used as switching devices to allow or stop power flow. They have many benefits as a result of being a cross between two of the most common transistors, Bipolar transistors and MOSFET.
IGBT transistors are three-terminal devices which apply a voltage to a semiconductor, changing its properties to block power flow when it's in the off state and allow power flow in the on state. They are controlled by a metal oxide semiconductor gate structure. IGBT transistors are widely used for switching electrical power in applications such as welding, electric cars, air conditioners, trains and uninterruptible power supplies.
There are various types of IGBT transistors and they are categorised by parameters such as maximum voltage, collector current, packaging type and switching speed. The type of IGBT transistor you choose will vary depending on the exact power level, and the applications being considered.
An IGBTs do have a much lower forward voltage drop compared to a conventional MOSFET in a higher blocking voltage rated devices. However, MOSFETs are characterised by a lower forward voltage at lower current densities due to the absence of diode Vf in the IGBT's output BJT.
An IGBT transistor module (insulated-gate bipolar transistor) consists of one or more IGBTs and is used in many types of industrial equipment due to its reliability. IGBT transistors are a cross between bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) and MOSFET. They are highly efficient and fast switching plus they have high current and low saturation voltage characteristics.